Seeds coated with the inoculum and planted in soils ammended with Triple Superphosphate and Calcium Ammonium Nitrate recorded the greatest shoot and root growth in both maize and beans. Genetic improvement of genotypes for early vigour is a better option to control weeds than hand weeding or use of herbicide due to economic and ecological considerations. Constructing a molecular map for an entirely new population is time-consuming and resource intensive. 1997). Seedling vigour was significantly correlated with yield traits. The QTL (RM5-RM306) for germination was mapped in the present study were also reported by Temnykh et al., (2001) and Thompson et al., (2003) indicating conservation of genomic regions across genotypes. However, 35 °C was found to be the most suitable temperature for growth and vigor of seedlings.Whereas,in seedling growth and vigor traits, variety Bangelo showed superiority with highest shoot length, root length, shoot fresh weight, root fresh weight, shoot dry weight, root dry weight, and vigor index. The Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers flanking QTLs in IR64/Azucena and other populations were used for validation in the new populations (BPT5204/A67 and BPT5204/Dodiga). cellulolytic enzyme complex production. caused by input of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Trichoderma isolates Total seedling dry weight QTL (RM26-C1447) on chromosome 5 in Zhenshan97/Minghui 63 studied by Cui et al., (2002) was located close to RM87-RM334. The two new F2:F3 populations viz., BPT5204/A67 and BPT5204/Dodiga were used for validation of markers. The plural selection efficiency can be increased by selecting markers closely associated with these traits. In view of such perspectives, the present investigation was conducted to evaluate the impact of different concentrations of domestic waste water on seed germination, physiological characteristics and pigment content of rice and wheat. The phenotypic variance explained was 9.6% (SL10) and 10.1% (SL14), respectively. Many antagonists especially some isolates of Trichoderma act as plant growth promotor in the absence of pathogens (Kleifeld and Chet, 1992) [28] . Erlenmeyer flasks containing sterilized water. 1995; Nagda et al. Fusarium redolens showed the more effectiveness on seed germination and seedling vigour than compared to other fungal isolates. Example Seed lot % germination A B % 95 C. 94 71 6674 The percent phenotypic variance explained by association was calculated using linear regression approach. Each isolates were grown. BAU-Biofungicide (3%) also resulted in improving maximum vigour index (2284.10) in treated seeds. A single QTL (RM327-RM27) on chromosome 2 contributed highest phenotypic variance of 40.2%. dry weights were evaluated. Table 1: QTLs associated with early vigour related traits in IR64/Azucena- DH population identified by interval mapping Seed borne pathogen of harvested seeds was greatly diminished due to foliar spray of BAU-Biofungicide and Trichoderma harzianum was evidently viable in harvested seeds of sprayed plot with BAU-Biofungicide. The chromosomal position of QTLs is depicted in Figure 1. Even though RM163 marker was located on the same chromosome, it was not associated with either root or shoot lengths, which may be due to segregation distortion of the marker. The SAFE Network, SRI-Mas, University Warmadewa and Bali Goverment work together in developing Bali as an organic island. Seedling vigor (seedling size, health, and growth rate) is the product of several factors related to genetics and environmental influences, and can also be manipulated through management. 1). Materials and Methods: The phosphofungi were screened using Pikovskaya's agar medium with tricalcium phosphate (Ca3 (PO4)2) as the phosphorus source. Species of Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium have been widely mentioned as efficient strains of phosphate solubilizers. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia, Fax: Enhancement of Rice Seed Germination and Vigour by. is able to enhance seed germination and vigour. The use of linked markers in QTL mapping compensates for recombination between the markers and the QTL and it is considered to be statistically more powerful (Yadav et al., 1997). We can conclude that there are significant influences on the growth and yield of rice plant by microbes. Aspergillus flavus showed positive result for the production of Indole 3 acetic acid and remain four fungal strains are negative result. in enhancing rice germination and vigour. ), Bavistin DF (Carbendazim) (positive control-1) and Potent 250 EC (Propiconazole) (positive control-2) were tested in controlling brown spot and sheath blight diseases of rice cv BRRI dhan29. enhances rice seedling performance during seed. According to data analysed in Statistica 10, using Duncan’s test, there were no significant Vigour Index (VI) = Rate of germination (%) x Seedling dry weight (mg/seedling) Twenty-two QTLs distributed on chromosomes 1 to 6 were identified for different vigour related traits. All rights reserved. (MAPMAKER/QTL v. 1. As opportunistic plant symbionts and effective mycoparasites, numerous species of this genus have the potential to become commercial biofungicides. Seed vigour is an important trait for direct seeding in rice. As many as 22 QTLs were identified for different vigour related traits and they were distributed on chromosomes 1 to 6. This would not only advance our understanding of the genetic diversity for seedling vigour in rice, but also favour pyramiding of more favourable alleles by marker-assisted selection (MAS) in molecular breeding programs. In the absence of sewerage system, people are using septic tanks and soak pits. RM253 (Chromosome 6) was associated with the shoot length at 10th and 14th day after sowing (DAS) with 9.6% and 10.1% contribution in BPT5204/A67. Cell suspensions of OTPB1 or spore suspensions of OTPB3 were incorporated into plastic pots containing tomato seed var. The congruence of QTLs was observed on chromosome 5 in the region RM87-RM334 for three traits, viz., rate of germination, seedling dry weight and vigour index may be due to either linkage or pleiotropy. Background: The use of chemical fertilizers to solve the problem of nutrient deficiency in soil has been associated with a number of environmental problems. The linkage analysis and map construction was done using Mapmaker/Exp, while chromosomal location of putative QTLs was determined by using Mapmaker/QTL program (Lander et al., 1987; Lincoln et al., 1992). All the variables of germination and seedling vigor of rice and wheat were increased by the conidial suspension of C. cladosporioides. This study reviews the role of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR), Plant Growth Promoting Fungi (PGPF) and Mycorrhizal Fungi in the enhancement of rice growth and yield. Germination rate and GSI were reduced, respectively, from 72% and 0.129 (24 h) to 60% and 0.092 (48 h) according to exposure time to GA3. Different mechanisms trigger by Trichoderma species directly influence on germination of seeds and vigor, ... Germination rate and vigor index of rice seeds given Trichoderma sp. On the bases of results, it is concluded that Trichoderma application enhances the growth rate of wheat seeds with no negative impact. F3 families were analyzed for early vigour related traits i.e., root (RL) and shoot lengths (SL) in two replications on 10th (RL10 and SL10) and 14th (RL14 and SL14) day after sowing (DAS). Only those markers showing initial association were used to screen more number of F2 segregants. The analysis was done using IRRISTAT program. The maximum seedling vigor index was recorded in M 35-1(3448) in both uninfested and (2649) infested conditions and at the same there was reduction in germination by 0.54 per cent for every one per cent increase in population buildup of rice weevils and the values are significant at 5 per cent. Growth stimulation and, induction of systemic resistance in tomato against. Aspergillus niger (13±1.0 mm) and Aspergillus flavus (8±0.6mm) showed the more phosphate solubilising index than compared to other fungal isolates. soil a decline in fertility, ecosystem damage, elimination of soil biota and emergence of resistant, fertilizers should be encouraged. Rapid and uniform germination are among the properties of vigorous seeds (Argerish & Bradford, 1989). Freshly harvested seeds of two varieties were sown on germination paper and in sand, using either distilled water, a concentrated solution of EM 4 or dilutions of EM 4 to moisten the substrate. the seedling length of 5 randomly selected seedlings are a1<;o measured. addressed. High correlation (0.82) between the first count and rate of germination compared to final count and rate of germination (0.33) also reveals greater contribution of first count towards rate of germination, which may be due to shared QTL. Gibberellins were first identified, . Waste water from different sources contains considerable amount of organic matter and plant nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, S, Cu, Mn & Zn) and has been reported to increase the crop yield (Pathak et al.

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