Today, that displacement only continues. Nelson believes the racist housing policies of the past can be undone through “anti-racist real estate practices.” The past approach for wealth building can be “reversed.”. How historical racist land use planning contributed to racial segregation and inequity for people of color in Portland. The term redlining came from the comprehensive color-coded maps HOLC and other lenders would create, which would indicate “security grades” for mortgage lending. The four-week (minimum) freeze is in effect through December 16th. The form was meant to capture data about areas’ characteristics and figure out which had “favorable influences,” such as good schools or views, and which had “detrimental influences,” such as “obnoxious odors, a lack of utilities, or a high number of African Americans or immigrants,” explained Rob Nelson, a professor at the University of Richmond, during a session at the Urban Land Institute’s virtual fall meeting. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. The foremost issue exacerbating community gentrification and displacement is the lack of affordable housing. The amount spent on housing should be around 30 percent. These areas were largely inhabited by African Americans and/or other people of color. Just having proximity to African Americans, who may be pedestrians walking through the neighborhood, would have material consequences.”, The same exact patterns of grading communities and redlining existed in a staggering 200-plus cities, both large and small, across the U.S. “This was structural racism that was state-endorsed.”, One of the results was to “direct public and private capital to white families in the suburbs.” In effect, redlining became “one of the greatest mechanisms for white families to generate wealth and for denying African Americans the opportunity.”. And as insidiously as the racist covenants lurking within the deeds of Portland’s older homes, the zoning patterns have created an exclusionary legacy and fueled speculation and displacement. Portland’s policy and investment framework to reverse suburban white flight, which guided the first Comprehensive Plan and multiple capital plans in the 1980s. After expanding her efforts by forming the City Life Is Moving Bodies (CLIMB) community group, Dr. Fullilove and team worked with designer Sagi Golan to fine tune a map they pass out at walking events and festivals. Vaughn Street Urban Renewal 1952 Housing Authority of Portland map . ( Log Out /  The A neighborhoods weren’t further examined — they were assumed to have multi-generational wealth and the “best people, really.” In the D neighborhoods, “comprised mostly of Negroes,” there “was no occupations listed; they were assumed to be domestic workers or gardeners.”, C neighborhoods were defined by the degree they were influenced by D neighborhoods. In Richmond, Virginia, D neighborhoods, marked in red, were found closer to the city center, while C neighborhoods were a little further out, and A and B neighborhoods were in the suburbs. This systemic discrimination, which was also practiced nationwide and goes back to the origins of our country, has harmed communities of color by excluding them from homeownership and wealth-building opportunities; denying them access to educational resources, jobs and healthy neighborhoods; and perpetuating segregation, displacement, and harmful stereotypes through the zoning code, deeds and covenants, lending practices, public housing and urban renewal. The team added in east west components as the trails moves north south. “The refusal to invest led to communities to become blighted and then to be destroyed through urban renewal,” she said. And so, it has become something of a beacon as we move forward in our equitable planning work. A lot of the African American population was put into a small section known as the Albina district, which is where the local NAACP was located. The 1950s Vaughn Street Redevelopment Area’s project area included 44 blocks (35 whole blocks and 9 partial blocks details shown on map to the right). Terms of Use. As Nelson pointed out, a recent study from The New York Times found that historically redlined communities had “much more asphalt and concrete and much fewer street trees or parks.” This resulted in higher levels of the urban heat island effect. Grade B neighborhoods were “still desirable” and “good for lenders.” Grade C neighborhoods were somewhat “infiltrated by lower grade populations,” and grade D neighborhoods experienced the “detrimental influence of undesirable populations.” In these neighborhoods, HOLC urged lenders to “refuse to make loans.” These predominately African American areas were deemed “hazardous,” Nelson explained. Showing a photo of the lenders who redlined New York City in the 1930s, it’s all white men. The term refers to the practice many banks used to designate “undesirable” areas of a city by drawing a red line around those neighborhoods on a city map.

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