In the light of the experimental results with mouse ES cells described above, it is very unlikely that clumps of human ES cells placed in a uterus would implant and develop into a fetus. The initial phase of embryonic patterning in mammals. Isolation of a primate embryonic stem cell line. <> All cells, including eggs, also contain some DNA in the energy-generating “factories” called mitochondria. Many common genetic predilections to diseases have similarly complex etiologies; it is likely that more such diseases will become apparent as the information generated by the Human Genome Project is applied. MEZEY E, CHANDROSS KJ, HARTA G, MAKI RA, MCKERCHER SR. Human embryonic stem cells. On the basis of current knowledge, it appears unlikely that adults will prove to be a sufficient source of stem cells for all kinds of tissues [11; 44-47]. Each newly produced individual is a clone of the original. RIETZE RL, VALCANIS H, BROOKER GF, THOMAS T, VOSS AK, BARTLETT PF. Arabidopsis thaliana. In other words, the only way to get mouse ES cells to participate in normal development is to provide them with host embryonic cells, even if these cells do not remain viable throughout gestation (Richard Gardner, personal communication). 21. 2-1. Nat Med 1999 Dec, 5(12):1410-2. endobj Transplantation 1992 Oct, 54(4):730-1. CTL respond to a mitochondrial antigen presented by H2-Db. 60. The zygote (from here onwards also called an embryo) divides into two and then four identical cells. Human embryonic germ cell derivatives express a broad range of developmentally distinct markers and proliferate extensively in vitro. J. Embryol exp. hood for rejection. BHUYAN PK, YOUNG LL, LINDAHL KF, BUTCHER GW. 67. Besides their uses for therapeutic transplantation, ES cells obtained by nuclear transplantation could be used in laboratories for several types of studies that are important for clinical medicine and for fundamental research in human developmental biology. The study panel did not address the issue of whether human reproductive cloning, even if it were found to be medically safe, would be—or would not be—acceptable to individuals or society. AMANO T, KATO Y, TSUNODA Y. J Biotechnol 1998 Oct 27(65) 2-3:99-110. How does it differ from stem cell research? But this will require the perfection of techniques for directing their specialization into each of the component cell types and then the assembly of these cells in the correct proportion and spatial organization for an organ. Such clones arise if one individual contributes the nucleus and another the egg—or if nuclei from a single individual are transferred to eggs from multiple donors. Even if clones are genetically identical with one another, they will not be identical in physical or behavioral characteristics, because DNA is not the only determinant of these characteristics. 53. gene defects related to specific diseases Organisms can be ‘engineered’ for specific purposes, e.g. Twinning: mechanisms and genetic implications. Clonal propagation of primate offspring by embryo splitting. Multiple clones might also be produced by transferring identical nuclei to eggs from a single donor. 2-6. A bank of ES cell lines covering many possible genetic makeups is one possibility, although the National Academies report entitled Stem Cells and the Future of Regenerative Medicine rated this as “difficult to conceive” [11]. The latter do not reflect the diversity of the general population and are skewed toward genomes from couples in which the female is older than the period of maximal fertility or one partner is infertile. GURDON JB, COLMAN A. If the egg used in this procedure is derived from the same individual that donates the transferred somatic nucleus, the result will be an embryo that receives all its genetic material—nuclear and mitochondrial—from a single individual.

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